A fortiori

It means with even concrete reason," this applies to a situation where one thing is precise then it can be deduced out that the subsequent thing is even more precise. Thus, if ram is unable to play football being a disabled then he certainly cannot run as well.

A priori assumption

It is an assumption that is believed to be true without further testimony or need to establish it. It is assumed the sun will rise tomorrow. However, this word lacks authenticity: an assumption made without confirming the testimony of something could be different from reality.


abbreviation for "also known as" when someone uses different initials, a nickname, a maiden or married name. Example: Anil Kumar Srivastava, a.k.a. A. K. Srivastava, a.k.a. " Question bank"

Ab initio

It means "from the start," as "it was legal ab initio." i.e. contract for illegal supply of guns is a contract which is void ab initio


Having been intentionally giving up permanently, surrender, leave, desert or renounce all interest or possession in the vested property. The word is frequently used in situations to determine the interest in the property or to ascertain the rights of tenant or landlord. Thus, if any tenant accrues any mesne profits from the property of the landlord during the usage then the landlord should claim the mesne profits with interest thereon & if he doesnt then he would abandon his right over that profit.

Abandoned property

It means property left behind deliberately and permanently as to when it appears that the owner does not intend to claim the right over the property or use it. Examples may include property of plot of land left behind after death without making any will or any property, belonging left behind with intention of never coming back to look after it again or without authorizing someone for the purpose.


It is an act of deliberately and permanently giving up, surrendering, deserting or renouncing property, building, passage, a ship, contract rights, a spouse and/or children. Abandonment of a spouse means intent at permanent separation, a lengthy period of time without any contact with each other.


It means something unpleasant or severe, such as creating nuisance in public or a private place or a behavior apparently unpleasant such as, high volume noise from a nearby public campaign or a factory, an improvement made in violation of building and safety codes, or leakage from a defective septic container.


1) the reduction of a problem which is in opposition to public or private policy, or endangers others, including nuisances such as reduction in problems as compare to what it was in prior times 2) an equal reduction of recovery of debts by all creditors when there are not enough funds or assets to pay the full amount.


Its a criminal offence i.e. taking away of a person by force or against his/her will (convincing someone-particularly a minor or a woman-he/she is better off leaving with the abductor) or abducting a person by using open force or violence.


It means to assist someone commit an offence, including helping them escape from police or plan the crime.


It can be described as a situation when the owner-ship of property has not been determined or in a state of temporary disuse or suspension. Examples include in an insurance policy, nominee who was entitled to receive the benefit died and there is no legal heir left behind by the insured is a state of abeyance or a person died without making a will.


It means physically competent of working at a job or competent to take care of himself/herself. It is often used to describe a person as capable of earning a living and, therefore, of paying alimony or child support.


It means deliberate termination of a human pregnancy by various means, including medical surgery, before the fetus is able to sustain independent life.


It can be referred to annulment or repeal of a law or to pass a legislation that contradicts with the prior legislation.


To escape from custody to avoid arrest. This term is generally used in court language i.e. if a person on whom a summons has been served or an order for arrest, if he/she does not appear before the court then he/she being treated as absconded.


It means complete without condition.


In general, it would mean a summary of a document, such as an abstract of judgment or abstract of title to real property.

Abstract of judgment

It is a written summary of a judgment which gives a brief idea about the issue or law point involved in the case along with the order held in it.

Abstract of title

It is the written report on a title or property search which shows the history of ownership of the property, number of owners, any dues, mortgage, dispute, class of property commercial/private, area of property with registration status.

Abuse of discretion

It is a polite way of saying a lower court judge has made such a bad error ("clearly against established law) during a trial or on prejudiced a person with natural justice. A court of appeals will use a finding of this abuse as a reason to reverse the lower court judgment. Examples of "abuse of discretion" is that a court has closed the chance of the defendant to put reply before the court against the petition made by the plaintiff or to decide a matter ex-parte without serving a notice to the other party. 2) To award exorbitant compensation to the victims as the amount of compensation go against the schedule compensation of the act.

Abuse of process

It means the use of legal process by illegal, malicious, or mala fide means. Examples include delaying the process of the court by not filling reply timely or by not calling witness to the court.


It is a situation where two parcels of real property touch each other.


It means speeding up the time when there is vesting of an interest in an estate or in science it is the rate of change in the speed of an object.

Acceleration clause

It can be referred to a provision in a contract or promissory note that on happening of a specified event, like not making installments on time occurs then the entire amount is due at once or other requirements are due.


It refers to receiving something with approval and intention to keep it. This situation arises when you obliges someone and accept something in return or accept something in return.


The gesture of consenting to receive something offered. It can be agreed verbally or in writing to the conditions of a contract. A written offer can be accepted only in writing.

Acceptance of service

Its an agreement by a defendant to accept the Summons or notice in a legal action to accept a complaint or other petition. The agreement of "acceptance of service" must be in writing or there is no proof that it happened. In most cases the service is done through registered post and acknowledgment of acceptance copy of post is considered to service of acceptance.


It means the means or opportunity to approach or enter a place. For example, when in joint account holding, both the account holders have access to the bank accounts.


It is a second player who helps in the commission of a crime i.e. by driving the getaway car, providing the shelter, assisting in the planning, providing financial help, or hiding the principal offender after the crime.


An arrangement made for convenience, a settlement or compromise or in simple terms a place to stay or live.


It can be referred as someone who assists in the commission of a crime and, different from a accessory. He is usually present at the crimes scene or directly aids in the commission of a crime.

Accord and satisfaction

It can be referred as an agreement to accept less than what is legally entitled to receive in order to abandon the dispute. Once the accord and satisfaction is made and the amount is paid, the debt is clean off even if the amount is less than the actual debt.

Account stated

It is a statement between a creditor or the person to whom money is owed and a borrower that a particular amount is payable to the seller as of a certain date.

Accounts payable

It can be referred as those bills that are owed.

Accounts receivable

The amounts of money due or payable to a business or professional by customers or clients. Generally, accounts receivable refers to the total amount due and is considered in calculating the value of a business or the business's problems in paying its own debts.


1) This term commonly used in real estate, the increase of the actual land on a stream, lake or sea by the action of water which deposits soil upon the shoreline. Accretion is a gift to the land owner by a natural process 2) In estates, when a beneficiary of the person who died gets more of the estate than he/she was meant to because another beneficiary or heir dies or rejects the gift.


It means to accumulate or receive payments or other benefits overtime. Or, it can be referred as the coming into being of the right to bring a lawsuit.


In legal terms accusation means officially charging someone with a crime either by indictment by a Grand Jury or filing charges by a District Attorney. However, in lay terms, it means any claim of wrongdoing by another person.


In legal terms it means to verify to a notary public or other officer (such as a County Clerk) that the signer executed (wrote, signed) the document like a deed, lease, or power of attorney, to make it certified as legal and suitable for recording.


It is the section at the end of a document where a notary public verifies that the signer of the document states he/she actually signed it.


It is the order which a judge gives at the end of a criminal trial if the jury or judge finds the accused defendant not guilty.


It means to set free from accusation. It is what an accused criminal defendant receives if he/she is found not guilty. It is a verdict of not guilty.


In general, it is an action by a person. In legal terms, it is a statutory plan passed by any legislature which is a "bill" until enacted and becomes law. Or, for a court to make a decision and rule on a motion or petition, as in "the court will act on your motion for a new trial."


It refers to a lawsuit in which one party sues another.


It refers to a situation when enough facts or circumstances exist to meet the legal requirements to file a legitimate lawsuit. If the facts required for proving a case cannot be alleged in the complaint, the case is not "actionable" and the client and his/her attorney should not file a suit. Incidentally, if a case is filed which is clearly not actionable, it may result in a lawsuit against the filer of the original suit for malicious prosecution by the defendant after he/she has won the original suit.

Actual controversy

It is the true legal dispute which leads to a genuine lawsuit rather than merely a "cooked up" legal action filed to get a court to give the equivalent of an advisory opinion.

Actual notice

It means not having been informed directly of something or having seen it occur, as distinguished from constructive notice.

Ad hoc

It is a Latin shorthand meaning "for this purpose only." An ad hoc attorney is one hired to handle one problem only and often is a specialist in a particular area or considered especially able to argue a key point.

Ad litem

It means "for the purposes of the legal action only." A person acting ad litem has the responsibility to pursue the lawsuit and to account for the money recovered for damages. If a child in such a lawsuit reaches majority while the suit is pending, the ad litem guardianship terminates and the "new" adult can run his/her own lawsuit.

Ad seriatim

It means "one after another".

Ad valorem

It is Latin term for "based on value," which applies to property taxes based on a percentage of the county's assessment of the property's value.


In general term, it can be referred as an item of additional material added at the end of a book or other publication. It is an addition to a completed written document. Most commonly this is a proposed change or explanation (such as a list of goods to be included) in a contract, or some point that has been the subject of negotiation after the contract was originally proposed by one party.


It is a common law doctrine used in the law of wills to determine what happens when property bequeathed under a will is no longer in the testator's estate at the time of the testator's death.

Adequate remedy

It is the remedy which is awarded by a court or through private action including compromise.

Adhesion contract

It is a is a contract between two parties, where the terms and conditions of the contract are set by one of the parties, and the other party has little or no ability to negotiate more favorable terms and is thus placed in a "take it or leave it" position.


It is a suspension of proceedings to another time or place. To adjourn means to suspend until a later stated time or place.


It is the legal process by which an arbiter or judge reviews evidence and argumentation including legal reasoning set forth by opposing parties or litigants to come to a decision which determines rights and obligations between the parties involved.

Adjusted basis

It is a process whereby the original cost of an asset adjusted for costs of improvements, depreciation, damage and other events which may have affected its value during the period of ownership.


He is an employee of an insurance company or an adjustment firm employed by an insurance company to negotiate an early settlement of a claim for damages against a person, a business or public body.


It can mean to conduct the duties of a job or position; to manage the affairs of the estate of a person who has died under supervision of the local court; or, to give an oath, as in "administer the oath."

Administrative hearing

It is a hearing before any governmental agency or before an administrative law judge.

Administrative law

It can be referred as the procedures created by administrative agencies involving rules, regulations, applications, licenses, permits, available information, hearings, appeals and decision-making.

Administrative law judge

He is a professional hearing officer who works for the government to preside over hearings and appeals involving governmental agencies.


It may refer to a person responsible for the performance or management of administrative business operations. Or, he is a person appointed by a court to handle the administration of an estate for someone who has died without a will.


It concerns of activities which occur at sea, including on small boats and ships in navigable bays.

Admissible evidence

It is any testimonial, documentary, or tangible evidence that may be introduced to a factfinderusually a judge or juryto establish or to bolster a point put forth by a party to the proceeding. For evidence to be admissible, it must be relevant, without being unfairly prejudicial, and it must have some indicia of reliability.


It is a statement made by a party to a lawsuit or a criminal defendant, usually prior to trial, that certain facts are true. An admission is not to be confused with a confession of blame or guilt, but admits only some facts.

Admission against interest

It is an exception to the rule on hearsay in which a person's statement may be used, where generally the content of the statement is so prejudicial to the person making it that he would not have made the statement unless he believed the statement was true.

Admission of evidence

A judge's acceptance of evidence in a trial.

Admission of guilt

It is an accused's oral or written statement acknowledging that he or she has committed a criminal offense.

Admission to bail

The order of a competent court or magistrate that a person accused of crime be discharged from actual custody upon the taking of bail.


It means to state something is true in answering a complaint filed in a lawsuit.


It means to take on the relationship of parent to child of another person, particularly a minor, by official legal action.


It is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents, and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents. Unlike guardianship or other systems designed for the care of the young, adoption is intended to effect a permanent change in status and as such requires societal recognition, either through legal or religious sanction.


It is extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral or legal grounds.


It is a payment which is made before it is legally due, such as before shipment is made, a sale is completed, a book is completed by the author, or a note is due to be paid.


It can be referred as the process of promoting a cause or plan. Or, it is a gift made by a person to one of his or her children or heirs in anticipation of a gift from the still-living parent's potential estate as an advance on one's inheritance.


It can be referred to a situation which is clearly contrary, such as an adverse party being the one suing you.

Adverse interest

It means a title or concern which is contrary to either interest or claim of another.

Adverse party

It means the opposite party to the litigation, either in court of law, or arbitration, conciliation & mediation.

Adverse possession

It means acquisition of title to land through obvious occupancy, while claiming ownership for the period of years set by the law of the state where such property exists.

Adverse witness

It refers to a witness at trial whose testimony on direct examination is either openly antagonistic or appears to be contrary to the legal position of the party who called the witness.

Advisory opinion

It means an opinion stated by a judge or a court upon the request of a legislative body or government agency. An advisory opinion has no force of law but is given as a matter of courtesy.


He is the person who signs an affidavit and swears to its truth before a notary public or some person authorized to take oaths.


It is a written sworn statement of fact voluntarily made by an affiant or deponent under an oath or affirmation administered by a person authorized to do so by law. Such statement is witnessed as to the authenticity of the affiant's signature by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public or commissioner of oaths.


It means what an appeals court does if it agrees with and confirms a lower court's decision.

Affirmative action

It is the policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer from discrimination within a culture. The nature of affirmative action policies varies from region to region. Some countries, such as India, use a quota system, whereby a certain percentage of jobs or school vacancies must be reserved for members of a certain group.

Affirmative defense

This defense to a civil lawsuit or criminal charge is a fact or set of facts other than those alleged by the plaintiff or prosecutor which, if proven by the defendant, defeats or mitigates the legal consequences of the defendant's otherwise unlawful conduct.


It means to attach something to real estate in a permanent way, including planting trees and shrubs, constructing a building, or adding to existing improvements.

After-acquired property

It is simply property which is acquired by a borrower after a security agreement is signed, by a debtor after a bankruptcy case is commenced, or by a testator after a will is made.

After-acquired title

It is a particular estoppel doctrine in the context of real property transfers. Under the doctrine, the grantor of a deed is barred from denying the truth of the deed. The doctrine may only be invoked in a suit arising out of the deed, or involving a particular right arising out of the deed.

After-discovered evidence

The evidence which is found by a losing party after a trial has been completed and judgment is given. It is also called newly-discovered evidence.

Age discrimination

It refers to an employer's unfair treatment of a current or potential employee.

Age of consent

It is the age at which a person is considered to be legally competent to consent to sexual acts, and is thus the minimum age of a person with whom another person is legally permitted to engage in sexual activity. The distinguishing aspect of the age of consent laws is that the person below the minimum age is regarded as the victim, and their sex partner as the offender.


It is the relationship of a person who acts on behalf of another person, company, or government, known as the principal. The basic rule of agency is that the principal becomes responsible for the acts of the agent, and the agent's acts are like those of the principal.


He is a person who is authorized to act for his principle, through employment, by contract or apparent authority.

Aggravated assault

It is a stronger form of assault, usually using a deadly weapon. Aggravated assault can also be charged in cases of attempted harm against police officers or other public servants.

Agreed statement

It is an agreement between two parties to a lawsuit or an appeal of a judgment. The agreements are always limited to cases where the dispute is a question of legal interpretation rather than a dispute concerning the facts of a case.


It means any meeting of the minds, even without legal obligation.

Aid and abet

It means helping someone in committing a crime.


This term is usually applied to insurance contracts in which payment is dependent on the occurrence of a contingent event, such as injury to the insured person in an accident or fire damage to his insured building.


It is a name used other than the given name of a person or reference to that other name, which may not be an attempt to hide his/her identity.


It is a form of defense used in criminal procedure wherein the accused attempts to prove that he or she was in some other place at the time the alleged offense was committed.


It means a person who is not a citizen of the country.


It can be referred as the transfer of title to real property, voluntarily and completely.

Alienation of affections

It means convincing a wife to leave her husband, often for another man, causing the husband to lose conjugal relations.


It is a legal obligation on a person to provide financial support to his or her spouse before or after marital separation or divorce.


It refers to a definite fractional share, usually applied when dividing and distributing a dead person's estate or trust assets.


It is a claim of a fact by a party in a pleading, charge, or defense. Until they can be proved, allegations remain merely assertions.


It means to claim a fact is true, commonly in a complaint which is filed to commence a lawsuit, in an "affirmative defense" to a complaint, in a criminal charge of the commission of a crime or any claim.


It is a legal term describing the increase in the area of land due to sediment deposited by a river.

Alter ego

It is a second self, which is believed to be distinct from a person's normal or original personality. In the case of corporations, proving one is an alter ego is one way of "piercing the corporate veil."

Alternative pleading

This permits a party in a court action to argue multiple possibilities that may be mutually exclusive by making use of legal fiction. A pleading in the alternative sets forth multiple claims or defenses either hypothetically or alternatively, such that if one of the claims or defenses are held invalid or insufficient, the other claims or defenses should still have to be answered.


It is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible. It is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose intended meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps.


It means to alter or change by adding, subtracting, or substituting. The change is usually called an amendment.

Amended complaint

What results when the party suing changes the complaint he/she has filed. It must be in writing, and can be done before the complaint is served on any defendant, by agreement between the parties, or upon order of the court. Complaints are amended to correct facts, add new causes of action, substitute discovered names for persons sued as "Does," or to properly plead a cause of action after the court has found the complaint inadequate.

Amended pleading

A changed written pleading in a lawsuit, including complaint or answer to a complaint. Pleadings are amended for various reasons, including correcting facts, adding causes of action, adding affirmative defenses, or responding to a court's finding that a pleading is inadequate as a matter of law.

American depository receipt

It is known in the banking trade as an ADR. It is a receipt issued by American banks to Americans as a substitute for actual ownership of shares of foreign stocks.

Amicus curiae

It means "friend of the court". It is a party or an organization interested in an issue which files a brief or participates in the argument in a case in which that party or organization is not one of the litigants.


It is a blanket abolition of an offense by the government, with the legal result that those charged or convicted have the charge or conviction wiped out.


It is a periodic payment plan to pay a debt in which the interest and a portion of the principal are included in each payment by an established mathematical formula. It is used in the Income tax Act as amortization of preliminary expenses, which means writing off preliminary expenses while calculating taxable income.


It is an annual sum paid from a policy or gift. It can also be referred as a short term for a purchased annuity policy which will pay dividends to the owner regularly for years or for life.

Antenuptial (prenuptial) agreement

It is a written contract between two people who are about to marry, setting out the terms of possession of assets, treatment of future earnings, control of the property of each, and potential division if the marriage is later dissolved.

Anticipatory breach

When a party to a contract repudiates his/her obligations under that contract before fully performing those obligations, it can be said as anticipatory breach.

Antitrust laws

The acts that are adopted to outlaw or restrict business practices considered to be monopolistic.

Apparent authority

The appearance of being the agent of another with the power to act for the principal is the apparent authority. Since under the law of agency the employer is liable for the acts of his employee, if a person who is not an agent appears to an outsider to have been given authority by the principal, then the principal is stuck for the acts of anyone he allows to appear to have authority.


It means to ask a higher court to reverse the decision of a trial court after final judgment or other legal ruling. After the lower court judgment is entered into the record, the losing party must file a notice of appeal, request transcripts or other records of the trial court, file briefs with the appeals court citing legal reasons for over-turning the ruling, and show how those reasons relate to the facts in the case.


It is the act of a party or an attorney showing up in court. Once it is established that an attorney represents the person, the lawyer may make an appearance for the client on some matters without the client being present.


He is the party who appeals a trial court decision he/she/it has lost.

Appellate court

It is the court of appeals which hears appeals from lower court decisions.


To professionally evaluate the value of property including real estate, jewelry, antique furniture, securities, or in certain cases the loss of value due to damage.


He is a professional who makes appraisals of the value of property. A careful, well-trained and practical appraiser may be more important than any other professional in a transaction, since one who grossly undervalues or overvalues property can wreak havoc.


It means to increase in value over a period of time through the natural course of events, including inflation, greater rarity, or public acceptance.


It is the increase in value through the natural course of events as distinguished from improvements or additions.

Approach the bench

It is an attorney's movement from the counsel table to the front of the bench in order to speak to the judge off the record and/or out of earshot of the jury.

Approach the witness

A request by an attorney to the judge for permission to go up to a witness on the witness stand to show the witness a document or exhibit.


It pertains to something that attaches. In real property law, this describes any right or restriction which goes with that property, such as an easement to gain access across the neighbor's parcel, or a covenant against blocking the neighbor's view.


It is the name for a referee appointed by the court to decide a question and report back to the court, which must confirm the arbiter's finding before it is binding on the parties.


It means something which is not supported by fair or substantial cause or reason.


It is a technique for the resolution of disputes outside the courts. The parties to a dispute refer it to arbitration by one or more persons, and agree to be bound by the arbitration decision.


He is the one who conducts an arbitration, and serves as a judge who conducts a "mini-trial," somewhat less formally than a court trial.


It is is a Latin legal term meaning for the sake of argument. "Assuming, arguendo, that ..." and similar phrases are used in courtroom settings and academic legal settings, and occasionally in other domains, to designate provisional and unendorsed assumptions that will be made at the beginning of an argument in order to explore their implications.


The characterization of a question asked by the opposing attorney which does not really seek information but challenges the truthfulness or credibility of the witness. Since such a question is not allowable, often it is the basis of an objection before the question is answered, much like irrelevant, immaterial or hearsay.

Arm's length

The description of an agreement made by two parties freely and independently of each other, and without some special relationship, such as being a relative, having another deal on the side or one party having complete control of the other.


It means to bring a criminal defendant before the court, at which time the charges are presented to him/her, the opportunity to enter a plea is given, a determination of whether the party has a lawyer is made, if necessary setting the amount of bail, and future appearances are scheduled.


The hearing in which a person charged with a crime is arraigned in his or her first appearance before a judge. This is the initial appearance of a criminal defendant.


It refers to the money which was not paid when due, usually the sum of a series of unpaid amounts, such as rent, installments on an account or promissory note, or monthly child support. Sometimes these are called "arrearages."


It means to take or hold a suspected criminal with legal authority, as by a law enforcement officer. An arrest may be made legally based on a warrant issued by a court after receiving a sworn statement of probable cause to believe there has been a crime committed by this person, for an apparent crime committed in the presence of the arresting officer, or upon probable cause to believe a crime has been committed by that person.

Arrest warrant

A judge's order to law enforcement officers to arrest and bring to jail a person charged with a crime, also called a warrant of arrest. The warrant is issued upon a sworn declaration by the district attorney, a police officer or an alleged victim that the accused person committed a crime.


The felony crime of intentionally burning a house or other building. The perpetrators range from mentally ill pyromaniacs to store owners hoping to get insurance proceeds.

Articles of impeachment

It refers to the charges brought (filed) to impeach a public official.

Articles of incorporation

The basic charter of a corporation which spells out the name, basic purpose, incorporators, amount and types of stock which may be issued, and any special characteristics such as being non-profit. Articles must be signed by the incorporating person or persons or by the first board of directors.


It refers to the threat or attempt to strike another, whether successful or not, provided the target is aware of the danger. The assaulter must be reasonably capable of carrying through the attack. Assault is both a criminal wrong, for which one may be charged and tried, and civil wrong for which the target may sue for damages due to the assault, including for mental distress.


It means to set a value on property, usually for the purpose of calculating real property taxes. The assessed value is multiplied by the tax rate to determine the annual tax bill.


It is generally any item of property that has monetary value, including articles with only sentimental value.


It means to transfer to another person any asset such as real property or a valuable right such as a contract or promissory note.


He is the person to whom property is transferred by sale or gift, particularly real property.


It is the act of transferring an interest in property or some right to another.

Assignment for benefit of creditors

It is a method used for a debtor to work out a payment schedule to his/her creditors through a trustee who receives directly a portion of the debtor's income on a regular basis to pay the debtor's bills.

Associate justice

He is a member of the Supreme Court appointed by the President They serve for life or until voluntary retirement or removal after being convicted after impeachment.


It refers to any group of people who have joined together for a particular purpose, ranging from social to business, and usually meant to be a continuing organization.


It means to take over the liability for a debt on a promissory note, which is often done by the buyer of real property which has a secured debt upon it.


It is the act of taking over a debt as part of payment for property which secures that debt.

Assumption of risk

It is a defense in the law of torts, which bars or reduces a plaintiff's right to recovery against a negligent tortfeasor if the defendant can demonstrate that the plaintiff voluntarily and knowingly assumed the risks at issue inherent to the dangerous activity in which he was participating at the time of his or her injury.


He is the person or entity that is insured, often found in insurance contracts.

At will employment

It means a provision found in many employment contracts which suggest the employee works at the will of the employer, and which the employers insert in order to avoid claims of termination in breach of contract, breach of the covenant of good faith and fair dealing, or discrimination.


It is a means of collecting a legal judgment by levying on property in the possession of a third party. Attachment of earnings, collecting money owed by a debtor directly from the debtor's employer It can also mean the seizing of money or property prior to getting a judgment in court, in contemplation that the plaintiff will win at trial and will require the money or property to cover the judgment.


It is an offense that occurs when a person comes dangerously close to carrying out a criminal act, and intends to commit the act, but does not in fact commit it. The person may have carried out all the necessary steps but still failed, or the attempt may have been abandoned or prevented at a late stage.


It means to confirm that a document is genuine. It can also mean to bear witness that someone actually signed a document, such as a will.


It is the act of witnessing a signature for the purpose of declaring that a document (like a will) was properly signed and declared by the signer to be his or her signature.


He is an agent or someone authorized to act for another.

Attorney general

He is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions he or she may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally.

Attorney of record

He can be is any lawyer or barrister recognized by a court as representing - and therefore responsible to - a party to legal proceedings before it. Provided he or she is qualified to appear before the court in question, an attorney may become attorney of record for a party either by notifying the court of the attorney-client relationship, or by being so designated or appointed by the court.

Attorney's fee

It refers to the payment for legal services rendered by the attorney.

Attractive nuisance doctrine

It states that a landowner may be held liable for injuries to children trespassing on the land if the injury is caused by an object on the land that is likely to attract children.[1] The doctrine is designed to protect children who are unable to appreciate the risk posed by the object, by imposing a liability on the landowner.


It refers to a systematic and independent examination of books, accounts, documents and vouchers of an organization to ascertain how far the financial statements present a true and fair view of the concern. It also attempts to ensure that the books of accounts are properly maintained by the concern as required by law.


He is a person or a firm appointed by a company to execute an audit. To act as an auditor, a person should be certified by the regulatory authority of accounting and auditing or possess certain specified qualifications. Generally, to act as an external auditor of the company, a person should have a certificate of practice from the regulatory authority.


It means the permission, or a right coupled with the power to do an act or order others to act.


It means to officially empower someone to act.


It refers to the change in the border of two properties due to a sudden change in the natural course of a stream or river, when the border is defined by the channel of the waterway.


In general, it is something given to a person, a group of people, or an organization to recognize their excellence in a certain field; a certificate of excellence. In addition, it is the decision of an arbitrator or commissioner of a controversy.